W.L. Pohl:
Economic Geology, Principles and Practice: Metals, Minerals, Coal and Hydrocarbons — an Introduction to Formation and Sustainable Exploitation of Mineral Deposits

(published April 2011)

Contents

Preface

Introduction

What is a mineral deposit?

Mining in the stress field between society and environment

The mineral resources conundrum

Part I. Metalliferous Ore Deposits

Chapter 1: Geological Ore Formation Process Systems (Metallogenesis)

Synopsis

1.1 Magmatic Ore Formation Systems

1.2 Supergene Ore Formation Systems

1.3 Sedimentary Ore Formation Systems

1.4 Diagenetic Ore Formation Systems

1.5 Metamorphic and Metamorphosed Ore Deposits

1.6 Metamorphogenic Ore Formation Systems

1.7 Metallogeny – Ore Deposit Formation in Space and Time

1.8 Genetic Classification of Ore and Mineral Deposits

1.9 Summary and Further Reading

Chapter 2: The Economic Geology of Metals

Synopsis

2.1 The Iron and Steel Metals

2.2 Base Metals

2.3 Precious Metals

2.4 Light Metals

2.5 Minor and Speciality Metals

2.6 Summary and Further Reading

Part II. Non-Metallic Minerals and Rocks

Chapter 3: Industrial Minerals, Earths and Rocks

Chapter 4: Salt Deposits (Evaporites)

Synopsis

4.1 Salt Minerals and Salt Rocks

4.2 The Formation of Salt Deposits

4.2.1 Salt Formation Today

4.2.2 Salt Formation in the Geological Past

4.3 Post-Depositional Fate of Salt Rocks

4.3.1 Diagenesis and Metamorphism of Evaporites

4.3.2 Deformation of Salt Rocks

4.3.3 Forms and Structures of Salt Deposits

4.3.4 Supergene Alteration of Salt Deposits

4.4 From Exploration to Salt Mining

4.5 Summary and Further Reading

Part III. The Practice of Economic Geology

Chapter 5: Geological Concepts and Methods in the Mining Cycle: Exploration, Exploitation and Closure of Mines

Synopsis

5.1 Economic Considerations

5.2 The Search for Mineral Deposits (Exploration)

5.2.1 Pre-Exploration Stage

5.2.2 Geological Exploration

5.2.3 Geological Remote Sensing

5.2.4 Geochemical Exploration

5.2.5 Geophysical Exploration

5.2.6 Trenching and Drilling

5.3 Development and Valuation of Mineral Deposits

5.3.1 Geological Mapping and Sampling

5.3.2 Ore Reserve Estimation and Determination of Grade

5.3.3 Valuation of Mineral Deposits

5.4 Mining and the Environment

5.5 Deep Geological Disposal of Dangerous Waste

5.6 Summary and Further Reading

Part IV. Fossil Energy Raw Materials – Coal, Oil and Gas

Chapter 6: Coal

Synopsis

6.1 The Substance of Coal

6.2 Peat Formation and Coal Deposits

6.3 The Coalification Process

6.4 Post-Depositional Changes of Coal Seams

6.5 Applications of Coal Geology

6.6 Summary and Further Reading

Chapter 7: Petroleum and Natural Gas Deposits

Synopsis

7.1 Species of Natural Bitumens, Gas and Kerogen, and their Properties

7.2 The Origin of Petroleum and Natural Gas

7.3 Formation of Petroleum and Natural Gas Deposits

7.4 Exploring for Petroleum and Natural Gas Deposits

7.5 The Exploitation of Petroleum and Natural Gas Deposits

7.6 Tar, Asphalt, Pyrobitumen and Shungite

7.7 Oil Shales

7.8 Environmental Aspects of Oil and Gas Production

7.9 Summary and Further Reading

Epilogue

References

Index


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